Making Of Indian Constitution Essay In 700 Words Is How Many Pages
The Constitution of India is the supreme law in India. The constitution is the framework for political principles, procedures, and powers of government. It's also the longest constitution in the world with 448 articles, 22 parts, 12 schedules. The constitution was written on 26 November 1949, and was made the center of law in 26 January 1950.
India had to face many problems after independence. Rehabilitating the refugees who migrated from Pakistan, merging the princely states, maintenance of law and order were challenges. Sardar Patel successfully achieved the merger of the princely states and provinces with the Union of India. Even the challenge of framing a constitution in order to enable govern the country was also fulfilled.
A Constitution is a set of rules and regulations guiding the administration of a country. The recommendations of the Motilal Nehru Committee and the decisions taken by the meeting of National Congress at Karachi prepared for the formation of a Constituent Assembly.
The first meeting of the new constituent Assembly was conducted on 9th of December, 1946. The next meeting conducted in 11th of December, 1946 under the chairmanship of Dr. Rajendra Prasad. Participants included Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhai Patel, Dr.B.R.Ambedkar, and Sarojini Naidu. Dr. B.R Ambedkar, chairman of the Drafting Committee, is often called the father of the Indian Constitution.
The 389 members of the Constituent Assembly formed many committees to examine in detail all the issues relating to the country. Dr.B.R.Ambedkar was the Chairman of one of the most important committees, i.e., the Drafting Committee. Other members of the committee were N.Gopalaswamy Iyengar, Alladi Krishnaswamy etc.
The Constituent Assembly, which came into existence on 11th of December 1946, had 145 meetings and framed a draft constitution. During these discussions, the various laws proposed by the British Government in 1909, 1919 and 1935, the British Parliamentary system, the American Bill of Rights, the Social Directive Policies of Ireland were studied and some parts of those were written in the Constitution. Finally, the Indian Constitution was approved on 26th of November, 1949 and came into effect on 26th of January, 1950. This day (January 26) is celebrated as the 'Republic Day' in India.
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Below is a list of all articles in chronological order of the constitution.
- Part I – Union and its Territory
- Part II – Citizenship.
- Part III – Fundamental Rights.
- Part IV – Directive Principles of State Policy.
- Part IVA - Fundamental Duties.
- Part V – The Union.
- Part VI – The States.
- Part VII – States in the B part of the First schedule(Repealed).
- Part VIII – The Union Territories
- Part IX – The Panchayats.
- Part IXA - The Municipalities.
- Part X – The scheduled and Tribal Areas
- Part XI – Relations between the Union and the States.
- Part XII – Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits
- Part XIII – Trade and Commerce within the territory of India
- Part XIV – Services Under the Union, the States.
- Part XIVA - Tribunals.
- Part XV – Elections
- Part XVI – Special Provisions Relating to certain Classes.
- Part XVII – Languages
- Part XVIII – Emergency Provisions
- Part XIX – Miscellaneous
- Part XX – Amendment of the Constitution
- Part XXI – Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions
- Part XXII – Short title, date of commencement, Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeals
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The Indian Constitution, which stands for national goals like Democracy, Socialism, Secularism and National Integration, was framed by the representatives of Indian people after a long period of debates and discussions. It is the most detailed constitution in the world. No other constitution has gone into such minute details as the Indian Constitution.
The Constitution of India was framed by a Constituent Assembly which was established in 1946. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected President of the Constituent Assembly. A Drafting Committe was appointed to draft the Constitution. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was appointed the Chairman of the Drafting Committee.
The Assembly met for 166 days spread over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 Days. The Constitution was adopted on 26 November, 1949. It came into force on 26 January, 1950. It had incorporated some of the salient features of the British, Irish, Swiss, French, Canadian and the American Constitutions.
The Constitution of India begins with a Preamble which contains the basic ideals and principles of the Contitution. It lays down the objectives of the frames of the Constitution. The Constitution contains 395-Articles and 12 Schedules. A number of amendment passed have also become a part of this Constitution.
The Constitution declares India to be a Sovereign, Secular, Socialist, and Democratic Republic. At the same time, India has federal features. The powers of the government are divided between the centred government and the state governments. The Constitution demarcates the powers of the central and estate governments into different lists of subjects.
These lists ire called the Union List, the State List and the Concurent List. The constitution provides for an independent and impartial lUdiciaiy and the Supreme Court is the highest court of the country. It decides disputes between the people and the government. The Constitution provides for the establishment of parliamentary form of government in India.
The President is the nominal head of the state. In actual practice the administration is run by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. The council of Ministers is responsible to the Parliament.
The Constitution of India guarantees Fundamental Rights to all its citizens. They have Right to Equality, Right to Freedom, right against Exploitation, Right to Freedom of Riligion, Cultural and Educational Rights and Right to Constitutional Remedies.
Taking inspiration from the Constitution'' of Ireland, framer of our constitution included the directive principles directions given to the central government and state governments to adopt such policies which would help establish a just society in our country. There are times when the country could not be run as in ordinary times. To cope with such difficult times, the constitution provides for the emergency provisions, which are it's another important features.
Yet another unique feature of our constition is that it is not as rigid as the American Constitution or as flexible as the British constitution. It means it is partly rigid and partly flexible. And so it can easily change and grow with the change of times.
Thus, Indian Constitution in keeping to its size has a number of distinctive features.