Thompson Pcs Model Essay English Book
Welcome to ScOPTbox: Practice Learning Library
"Practice learning is at the heart of developing a competent, confident social work profession, able to deal with an increasingly complex and changing world..."
Confidence in Practice Learning
Scottish Government, 2004
ScOPTbox contains resources to support social work practice learning, and also provides individual spaces to be used by practice educators in supporting their students.
Anyone working in social work education and practice learning in Scotland can use ScOPTbox to set up sites to support learning, communication and collaboration.
We have a vision that this site will evolve in three ways:
- a collection of practice learning materials, contributed by members and colleagues with an interest in practice learning. Read more...
- a gateway to practice learning materials, in Scotland, across the UK, and internationally;
- hosted spaces for practice educators who wish to engage with students online, or provide secure access to resources for their students. Anyone can request a hosted space - you will have full administration access to your part(s) of the site.
verb: develop gradually, especially from a simple to a more complex form.
This site is a work in progress. It is, and is meant to be, continually evolving. It will become more valuable as more and more people start using it and sharing resources.
About the site
We're powered by Moodle, a free online learning platform, also known as a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). It is specifically designed to help educators create online courses with a focus on interaction. The site is hosted and managed by Focused on Learning, for and on behalf of The Scottish Organisation for Practice Teaching.
Theory Guides - Anti-Oppressive Practice
Exploring anti-oppressive practice: Thompson’s PCS Model
According to Thompson (1997), the workings of oppression can be analysed using a model that examines three levels – P (personal) C (cultural) and S (structural):
Personal (P) Level
This is normally concerned with an individual’s views, particularly in the case of a prejudice against a certain group of people. For example, this could relate to a young person who makes racist comments. It is purely related to individual actions and you are likely to come into contact with this in practice. The ‘P’ is located in the middle of the diagram, because that individual has his beliefs and ideas supported through two other levels...
Cultural (C) Level
This analysis relates to the ‘shared values’ or ‘commonalties’. For example, shared beliefs about what is right and wrong, good or bad, can form a consensus.
Structural (S) Level
This analysis demonstrates how oppression is ‘sewn into the fabric’ of society through institutions that support both cultural norms and personal beliefs. Some institutions such as sections of the media, religion and the government can cement the beliefs.
Example: Homophobia Legalised
P: Young man in the club you work at makes offensive and derogatory comments about a gay man who attends also. He says that ‘gay people are not natural’ or ‘normal’.
C: Gay people largely repulse the community around him, and many of the community members are involved with the local church, holding firm views about 'sexual morals'.
S: Popular tabloid media berates the ‘abnormal’ activities of gay people. Religious leaders of all faiths support the instatement of laws to stop equal rights for gay people. Legislation is passed by parliament that compromises the rights of gay, lesbian and bisexual people. There is an overwhelming 'consensus' of power used in all forms of structural life.
How this analysis can help youth workers
This analysis may help you to build an idea of why young people behave in certain ways – or why they carry out such actions. It can also give you ground for challenging inequality. By first fully identifying what drives people to hold ‘prejudices’. It reminds us that society enforces a lot of our beliefs – helps us to understand how something can become a ‘norm’ and how best we can go about explaining, and challenging, oppression.
Testing the model
Try to think of a commonly held assumption that you, or someone you know, hold to be true. From this, see if it is a shared view in anyway. Then begin to see how national institutions, such as the newspaper you read or a television programme you watch could help to support your views.
On the site:
Agents of Surveillance by Jason Woodexplores the PCS model in relation to youth work
Anti-oppressive case-study by Jay Patelshows how anti-oppressive practice can be implemented
Change Agent in Conflict by Jason Woodexplores the conflicts facing youth workers in terms of the 'structure'
Thompson, N. (1997) Anti-discriminatory Practice (2nd Ed), Basingstoke: Macmillan Chapter 2 deals particularly with the theory base of oppression and explores the PCS in some length.There is now a third edition of this book.
Written by Jason Wood, August 2001
Please always reference the author of this page. How to reference us.
Copyright © 1999-2002 Student Youth Work Online. All rights reserved.
Revised: February 14, 2002 .
Contact the author for further discussion about this paper